Pilgrim Software's 10th Global Customer Conference Lauds 'Success Through Quality'
Pilgrim Software, Inc., a leading provider of cloud and on-premise enterprise quality management solutions, hosted its tenth worldwide customer conference this month.
WHITE PAPERS & CASE STUDIES
Efficiencies Of Natural Convection In Passive Pallet Shippers
Bulk transportation of temperature sensitive pharmaceuticals and biologics has become a common practice due to complex global supply chains. By Iftekhar Ahmed, Ben VanderPlas, and Stu Krupnick
How Southwest Laboratories Delivers Time-Sensitive Drug Tests
Providing drug abuse testing throughout the Western U.S. and beyond, Southwest Laboratories uses a reliable, time-definite FedEx Returns solution to ship 500 to 700 test samples every day, directly from their customers’ offices to the testing facility.
Health Care Supply Chain Requires Regulatory Expertise And Execution
In the U.S. health care supply chain, before a medical device or drug can be shipped -- state and county licenses must be secured, FDA Quality Systems regulations must be complied with, and accreditations must be earned. The health care supply chain plays a key role in patient safety by ensuring the integrity of products from the time they are manufactured to the time they are delivered to a health care provider or patient.
The New Scope Of Reusable Device Cleaning Validations
Medical device manufacturers are using advances in technology to create devices that are changing the healthcare world. Along with these advances comes increased device cost as the designs, materials, and manufacturing techniques become more complicated. By Patrick Kenny
Biological Contamination Events In Isolators: What Lessons Can Be Learned?
Microbiological deviation and biological contamination events have been observed in pharmaceutical isolators including those used in production, sterility test and pharmacy aseptic services. By James Drinkwater, Bioquell UK Process & Compliance Director
Weathering The Storm Of Regulatory Compliance In Aseptic Manufacturing
When the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducts an unscheduled inspection of your aseptic manufacturing process, it can hit with the fury of a New England nor’easter. But just as careful planning and forecasting help us safely ride out the storm, a best-practice control and monitoring system minimizes the danger of FDA noncompliance. By Alex Mello, Microtest
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About Nutrient Removal
Nutrient removal from wastewater consists of treating wastewater to remove nitrogen and phosphorus before it reenters natural waterways. High levels of nitrogen and phosphorus in wastewater cause eutrophication, a process where excess nutrients stimulate excessive plant growth such as algal blooms and cyanobacteria. The decomposition of the algae by bacteria uses up the oxygen in the water causing other organisms to die. This creates more organic matter for the bacteria to decompose. In addition, some algal blooms can produce toxins that contaminate drinking water supplies.
As authorized by the Clean Water Act, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program regulates point sources, such as municipal wastewater treatment plants, that discharge pollutants as effluent into the waters of the United States. In recent years, many of the States’ environmental bodies have lowered nutrient limits to arrest eutrophication. Maryland’s effort to protect the Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries is perhaps the most notable example of nutrient removal in the US. Nutrient removal continues to be a growing area of focus for wastewater treatment throughout the world.
The removal of nitrogen and phosphorus require different nutrient removal processes. To remove nitrogen, the nitrogen is oxidized from ammonia to become nitrate through a process called nitrification. This process is then followed by denitrification where the nitrate is reduced to nitrogen gas which is released to the atmosphere and removed from the wastewater.
Nitrification is a two-step aerobic process which typically takes place in aeration tanks. Denitrification requires anoxic conditions to encourage the appropriate biological conditions to form. The activated sludge process is often used to reduce nitrate to nitrogen gas in anoxic or denitrification tanks.
Phosphorus can be removed biologically using polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) which accumulate large quantities of phosphorus within their cells and separate it from treated water. Phosphorus removal can also be achieved by chemical removal. Once removed as sludge, phosphorus may be stored in a land fill. However, many municipalities and treatment facilities are looking to resell the biosolids for use in fertilizer.