Lyotherm 2 - Electrical Impedance (Zsin) and DTA ApparatusSource: Biopharma Technology Limited
Lyotherm 2 provides an integrated Differential Thermal Analyser (DTA) and newly-developed electrical impedance (Zsin) capability within one instrument.
Lyotherm 2 provides an integrated Differential Thermal Analyser (DTA) and newly-developed electrical impedance (Zsin) capability within one instrument. Lyotherm 2 has been designed to measure glass transition (Tg’), eutectic (Teu) and melting (Tm) temperatures relevant to freeze-drying formulations.
Building on the conventional “electrical resistance” analysis that has traditionally been used for identification of softening or eutectic melting points in frozen materials, the use of impedance analysis – and specifically the measurement of a derivative of impedance known as “Zsin” - can provide important information as to the behaviour of the frozen solute phase1 which may not be identifiable using conventional analytical techniques. As a result of its unique design features, Lyotherm 2 not only has the benefit of combining DTA and Zsin analysis within one instrument, but also comes in at a fraction of the cost of many DSCs.
1L. Rey (1999) Glimpses into the Realm of Freeze-Drying: Classical Issues and New Ventures, In: Freeze-Drying/Lyophilization of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products, L. Rey & J. May (eds), Marcel Dekker Inc., pp. 1-30
Lyotherm 2 and Lyostat 2 together provide valuable information that can be fed back into both formulation and cycle development processes. In addition, BTL has more innovative analytical instruments in the development pipeline.